english language communication skills lab manual
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An utteranceAs we exhale, we modify the flow of air in a variety of ways toSpeech Sounds are very broadly divided in to twoP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)There are twenty distinctive vowel sounds, made up of twelve pure vowels orVowels are the most importantTo articulate vowels one needs to allowDiphthongs. Of the twelve pure vowels seven are short and five are long. We notice thatBesides Monophthongs there are eight vowel sounds called. Diphthongs. They are actually combinations of two vowel sounds with the voice glidingConsonants. We can define a consonant by reference to three characteristics. Plosives. One way of making a consonant is to block the flow of air so that pressure builds up, and thenVoiced Voiceless Examples. Point of articulation. The two lipsBack of tongue and soft palate or velum gTongue tip and tooth-ridgeP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Some consonants are produced when air is forced through a narrow opening. These are knownVoiced Voiceless Examples. Lip and teethTongue and hard palate ?Tongue-tip and teethAffricates. A plosive and a fricative are pronounced together. Voiced Voiceless Examples. Palate and tooth-ridge. P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)The air exits through the nose rather than the mouth. All nasals are voiced. Voiceless Examples. Voiced. The two lipsTongue tip and tooth ridge nTongue and soft palateApproximants: The remaining four consonants of English are less clear-cut. Some may beVoiced Voiceless Examples. Tooth-ridgeHard palateP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)These two are known as glides. The two lipsTongue and hard palate jVowels are classified into three groups: short, long and diphthongs. Short vowels andMonopthongs represent one symbol - oneShort Vowels. ExampleLong Vowels. ExampleP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.). ExampleP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.http://goraku-sangyo.com/userfiles/disaster-management-manual-pdf.xmlPsy, Ph.D.)P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Syllable is a unit of human speech that is interpreted by the listener as a single sound. Every word in English is made up of one or more syllables. A syllable consists of vowelsAt times a single vowel itself can constitute aObjectives:Syllabic Division. Monosyllabic Words (A word with one-syllable). Disyllabic Words (A word with two-syllables). Trisyllabic Words (A word with three-syllables). Polysyllabic Words (A word with three-syllables or more than three). Consonant Clusters. If the syllable begins with more than one consonant we call this a consonant cluster.Consonant plus l, r, w, j Examples are plate, grin, slip,Three consonant clusters: Some syllables begin with three consonants, although theThe three consonants are called the pre-initial, the initial andP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Words. Disyllabic. Words. Trisyllabic. Polysyllabic WordsArc ticSpee do me terP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)In di anP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Hall ow eenA mer i caChris tian. Christ masP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Stress is defined as using more muscular energy while articulating the words. When aThe prominence makes some syllables beWords including long vowels and diphthongs or ending with moreObjectives:English words have one or more syllables. A syllable is a complete sound unit. In wordsThe more prominent of the syllable receives theWhile the primary accentStressed Syllables. In words of more than one syllable, one of them will receive more stress than the others.https://www.informaquiz.it/petrgenis1604790/status/flotaganis08062022-1353 Stressed syllables are those that are marked in the dictionary as stressed. StressedIn English, stressed syllables areThe word “banana”, for example, has 3 syllables. Syllable 1 is not stressed and so isSyllable 3 is notP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)In an English utterance, stressed words give information to the listener and unstressedCorrect pronunciation of stressed andInformation words in a sentence are usually nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. They give information about who, what, when, where, why, and how. They express theThey carry the message and thereforeUnstressed words are usually function words like articles, pronouns, possessives,These words connect theDon’t’s in Stress. If you stress all the words in an utterance, you may sound unpleasant or even causeWord Accent Exercises. In a number of disyllabic words, the stress depends upon whether the word is used as aThe accent is on the first syllable if the word is a noun orP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Ag’reementAfter’noonWords having four syllables (Polysyllabic). A’bliltyP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Affili’ationSep’tember. Oc’tober No’vember De’cember. Sentence Stress. It is generally the case that one word is stressed more than any other since it possessesContent words are nouns, verbs, adjectives, andThe sound “Hello” with proper stress and tone. O Can affect the meaning of a sentence. O Can cause misunderstandings. O Is as important as your choice of words. Saying Hello to one another, in the following ways. O As if it were to their boss. O to their best friend. O to a six month old baby. How different words can be stressed in the sentence. The bold text indicates whereO I like your mother’s cooking. (Personally, I like). O I like your mother’s cooking. (Emphasis of natural meaning.). O I like your mother’s cooking. (A particular mother. ). O I like your mother’s cooking. (Particular family member.).http://cornerwebstudio.com/images/compact-camera-with-manual-exposure.pdf O I like your mother’s cooking. (Only Cooking ). P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Rules for Sentence Stress in English. The basic rules of sentence stress are:The following tables can help you decide which words are content words and whichContent words - stressed. Words carrying the meaning ExampleWords for correct grammar. ExampleP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Accent Rules. When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louderIt may seemO Accents are often on the first syllable. O In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root. O If de-, re-, ex-, in-,po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually not. O Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates anO When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the syllable before theO The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial,O In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually. Stress on 1st syllable. Most two-syllable nouns, such as label, format, interest, pity, treaty, purchase. Most two-syllable adjectives, such as lucky, grateful, handsome, fearful, active,Compound nouns, such as blackboard, sidewalk, streetlight, shoelace,P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Most two-syllable verbs, such as invent, reply, decide, persuade, divulge, conduct,Compound adjectives, such as run-down, close-cut, high-strung, pumped-up, dimCompound and two-word (phrasal) verbs, such as withdraw, undo, pass out, giveStress on penultimate syllable (2nd to the last):Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (3rd to the last):Stress on first syllable in compound nouns:P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Intonation refers to the total pattern of pitch changes, i.e., the rising and falling of theSo we call the melody of languageObjectives:Importance. O It is the English intonation which makes English sound really English. O Intonation makes speech meaningful. English intonation adds the meaning of an utterance in two ways. O It shows the relationship of words within and between sentences. O It tells something about the feeling of the speaker. Intonation Refers. O Different meanings for the same utterance. O Different pitches help us express our feelings: happiness, sadness, surprise,O In listening to the meaning of an utterance, we listen to how speakers talk as wellO The HOW and WHAT together give us the meaning of an English utterance. O Intonation patterns that disagree with the content of the utterance may indicateTypes of Intonation. English has different intonation patterns: rising tone, falling tone, rising falling andP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Intonation units are also called tone groups or tone-units. An intonation unit mayThe last stressedA nucleus refers toExample. For example, this is the normal way of saying the following sentence. I am WRIting a LETter to him NOW. There are ten syllables in this sentence among which three are stressed syllables. TheSo we say that NOW has the focus stress, and is the tonicThe nucleus is the essentialIt is still present even if the unit consists of a single syllable,O Any syllable or syllables that may follow the nucleus in an intonation unit areO There are three unstressed syllables after the nucleus. These syllables are calledP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)In the sentence “I am. WRIting a LETter to him”, the “head” of this intonation unit is made up of threeO Any unstressed syllable or syllables that may precede the “head”, or the “nucleus”In the sentence “I am WRIting a. LETter to him”, “I am” comprises the “pre-head” of this intonation unit. So if you analyze the following sentence, we will come up with the structure of anI am WRIting a LET ter to him.Falling tune is commonly used in:P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)You may read and study the examples given above in order to have a clearerINTONATION: Rising tune. As the name rightly suggests, there is a rhythmical rise in the speaker’s pitch level as itRising time is commonly used in:P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)B. Question showing Warm Personal InterestC. EnumerationD. Polite RequestsE. GreetingsP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)F. Indication of UncertaintyG. Incomplete StatementThis tone is the combination of a fall and a rise. This is used for statements expressingThis tone is a combination of a rise and a fall. This reinforces the meaning conveyed byP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Thus, everyone has mother tongue influence (MTI) to beginObjectives:Heavy mother tongue influence happens because your native language sounds have notThis, in turn may happen due to one or more of the following reasons:Many deserving candidates lose out on job opportunities because of their vernacularDon't worry about your. P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Do not use the 'music' of your native languageEach language has its own way of 'singing'.Record theseListen and read at the same time.Compare the sound of your. English with that of the person reading the book on the tape.Pay special attention to 'S' and 'ED' endings. This will help you strengthen the mouth muscles that you use when you speak. English.Research has shown it takesMany people hateHowever, this is a very important exercise because doing it will help you becomeP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)There are a few tricks to making a vernacularExercises to practise every day. Do not read local newspapers. Focus on national newspapers.The mother tongue’s influence on prepositions. One prepositional error that is very common among students in India is the use of theIncorrect: I discussed about the movie 3 idiots. Correct: I discussed the movie 3 idiots. Incorrect: Please discuss about the proposal with your team. Correct: Please discuss the proposal with your team. For most learners of English, “in” and “on” are problematic prepositions. In the place ofBelow are the correct sentences. P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)The preposition that precedes the word campus isWhen the verb is used transitively, it takes an object as in the following example:P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Ice Breakers are an effective way of starting a training session or team-building event. They can be interactive and fun sessions, which run prior to the main event or daysIce Breaker ActivitiesIcebreakers can play an important role inObjectives:Activities:In this process, students are asked to speak on aIt is conducted for students to. P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)It helps the introvert and shy students to takeIt helps students condense the entireThat is the reason JAM is included in Campus. Recruitment Training Programs to encourage students to improve their communicationHence, students must actively participateIn classrooms, after completion of the teaching session,Just a Minute topicsIs that so?Common Use of Articles:Example:A man and a boy are on a bus.P.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Example: They took a train to Reno. The train was veryExample: The four friends sing folk songs. Really? WhatA root, as its name suggests, is a word or word part from which other words grow,The root of the word vocabulary,The very words prefix and suffix are good examples too. Pre means before and fix meansP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Common Prefixes. Prefix. Meaning. ExampleP.RAJA RAO M.A.(Eng),M.Phil, M.B.A.,(M.Sc.Psy, Ph.D.)Suffix. ExampleWords that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym isAntonyms: A word that expresses a meaning opposed to the meaning of another word, inList of Synonyms Antonyms. Word. Synonym. SynonymNon-professionalThe words in, of, off are here used as Prepositions. Def.- A Preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show in whatKinds of Prepositions. Prepositions may be arranged in the following classes:At, by, for, from, in, of, off, on, out, through, till, to, up, with. Compound Prepositions which are generally formed by prefixing a. About, above, across, along, amidst, among, amongst, around, before, behind, below,Phrase Prepositions (Groups of words used with the force of a singleRole-playing can be thought of as unstructured drama. In these exercises, a student looks atThe instructor provides the setting and theThis research opportunity can easily become an inquiry element. These exercises require the students to use imagination, background knowledgeObjectives. O To help build teams and improve communications. O To develop motivation and imagination. O To improve speaking and listening for real life situations. Characteristics. O Role playing games, exercises and activities can enhance business projects, givingO It uses scripts that you read with your partner, like actors in a movie. O It gives you information about your role. You can then talk with your partner usingO It helps you speak English in full sentences. O It makes you think about what you are saying, so you remember the language. O It gives you many things to think and talk about. Types of Role Play. O 1.Situation Role Plays: Situation Role Plays give you practice speaking English withExamples: At the Markets, Clothes Shopping. Airport Check-in, Job Interview. O 2. Story Role Plays: In Story Role Plays, you and your partner are characters in aO 3. Short Discussions: Short Discussions give you practice in asking and answeringAmerica, NEWS! Global WarmingExamples: Environment, Movies. Non-verbal Communication in Role-PlayConversation Starters:Hi, how you’re doing.You can respond with this counter-greeting onAlso a good start of a response you want to take a bit more time to consider what you’re going toIt indicates that you’re about to open upDeparture Phrases:Sentence Structure -- Subject-Verb AgreementIf the subject is singular, use aObjects of prepositions cannot be subjects. Examples: The letter (singular) to the editors is(singular to agree with letter) ready. The copiers(plural) in Operations are(plural to agree with copiers) better than thoseOne anyoneTheir number is determined by the key wordExample: The secretary and the treasurer are (plural) responsible for presentingLearning how to communicate well on the telephone is one of the top priorities for manyLearning the common phrases that are used onHowever, what students often needWhile helpful, practicing a role-play in theOvercome Barriers. Telephoning requires special skills as there are a number of difficulties that arise whenThe first and foremost difficulty is not beingThis lack of visual communicationAdd to this the typical hectic pace ofBreathe. Before you pick up the phone, take a deep breath. Most of us are what they call “shallowYou can also practice it when you are making a call and start your breath as the phone isYou’ll be surprised how you feel when you use this technique. Identify yourself. Give your full name and function and or the name of your company. Since they have takenBe Sincere. If we are honest with ourselves, we are all “problem solvers” in some way. People call us onWhether it is to get driving directions, or hours ofListen attentively. Put everything down when you answer the phone. Easier said than done, isn’t? How manyVisualize the person. Visualize the person, even if you don’t know them so that you remind yourself you areIf you still have trouble listening, start taking notes onUse a headset if possible, to keep your hands free. By taking notes youOutcome. If the phone call has been successful, the first 30 seconds established a positive perceptionThe last 30 seconds will be when the callerYou can make that a positive experience by thankingTelephone skills include. Smiling. Smiles and gestures can easily be heard over the phone, so keeping that smile on your faceEmpathy. If you can’t put yourself in a caller’s shoes especially when you know they are wrong, howProblem Solving Skills. Generally, the company you work for will offer the tools to solve any problem a caller maySocial Etiquette. What is Etiquette? O Practicing good manners. O Knowing how to behave in a given situation. O Knowing how to interact with peopleProper etiquette helps you make a great firstCommunication is Key. Verbal: What you say and how you say it. Nonverbal: handshake, posture, eye contact, facial expressions, confidence. Social Functions. Avoid hanging out exclusively with your friends; mingle and make conversation. Make attempts to meet as many people as possible. The art of small talk is asking questions. First Impressions. It takes 30 seconds for a person meeting you for the first time to form impressionsYou never get a second chance to make aYou’re always ?onstage. Always be prepared to look and sound your best. Good grooming is essential. Smile and make eye contact. Introductions. In the business arena, the person of lesser importance, regardless of gender, is introducedI When being introduced. I Stand up. I Look them in the eye. I Give a firm handshake. I Speak slowly and clearly. I Smile! Most commonly confused and misspelled English words. Some English words may sound the same yet they are so different in meaning, others mayBellow are most commonlyDescribing. Describing is something which involves recreating your experiences and impressions. ItUse a flowchart to identifyCollect the data for describing theObjectives. O To develop skills in describing. O To master effective communication. O To understand the depth of the situation. Describing Objects. A paragraph to describe objects consists of 5 parts as follows:Connection between parts. O A drum is used for making music. O A drum is used to make music.A hammer has two parts: a handle and a head.Characteristics MaterialBread is made from wheat. This kind of car is made by a big company in Japan. Shape. A coin is circular. Noun. SquareAdjectiveDescribing a Person. Height. He is tall. He is short. He is normal height. Build. She is skinny. (negative). She is fat. (negative). She is underweight. (negative) She is overweight. (negative). She is thin. (negative) She is plump. (neutral). She is slim. (positive). She is stocky. (neutral). She is slender. (positive). She is bonny. (positive)HairEyesType of hairShe has short hair. She has short, black hair. She has medium length,She has short, blonde hair. Type of complexion. He is Asian. He has light-brown skin. She is black. She has dark skin. He is white. He has fairShe is white. She has very pale skin. Other featuresGiving Directions. Giving and receiving directions in English is a great because it is useful, easy, and can beIn addition students practice movement,Because of this, the students tend toNot everyone knows where they are going and may needDirections may be needed to get to a nearby town,Objective:To speak fluently. For giving accurate instructions. To develop critical thinking. Suggestions for giving directions. Giving street directions is really very easy when you remember to follow these points. When giving directions you are actually giving two sets of instructions. In the second set- “Then”, you are telling the listener what to do when they get there. (turnAnother good idea is to use easily identifiable landmarks; instead of the amount of time toEasily identifiable landmarks are street lights,Prepositions of location most commonly used when giving directions:Note the expressions used in the dialogue and the progression of the conversation. Wally: Excuse me, could you tell me how to get to the city hospital? Sally: Sure, the hospital is on Tenth Street, about 20 minutes away by foot. Go south on thisWally: Go south two blocks to the stop light. Sally: Correct, then, turn left and go three more blocks, until you come to the end of the road. A park will be in front of you. Wally: Turn left and go for three blocks to the park. Sally: Right, then turn right again and go seven blocks, to Lipton Avenue. Wally: Turn right and go seven blocks to Lipton Avenue. Sally: Next, turn left on Lipton Avenue and go two blocks. The hospital is on your left, acrossWally: OK, let me see if I’ve got this straight. Go south on this street for two blocks to the stopTurn right at the park and goSally: No, turn left on Lipton Avenue. Wally: OK, turn left on Lipton Avenue, the hospital is two blocks down, on my left. Sally: You got it. Wally: Thanks. When Giving Directions in English, Giving directions usually consists of to sets ofIn the second set: Say “Then” and tell the listener what to do when they get there. (turnGiving Directions for Locations:The movie theater (on Oak Street across from the Book store). One Word Substitutions:ConvalescentOmnipotentOmnipresentOmniscientGullibleInfallibleMercenaryPauperTurncoatVolunteerBibliophileBilingualPhilanthropistMisanthropeOptimistPessimistAnarchist. AgnosticIndefatigableSamaritanPlagiaristMisogynistPolyglotFeminist.StoicEffeminateEccentricReticentPedestrianFatalistIntestateValetudinarianDemocracyMonarchyBureaucracyPlutocracyOligarchyAristocracyAutocracyMobocracyTransparentOpaqueTranslucentEgoistOrphanageIndescribable. Question tags. Question Tags are often used to solicit input or confirmation to what we are saying. UsingThere are five ways in which we normally use question tags and they are easilyIf the main part of the sentence is positive, the question tag is negative. Example: “He’s a doctor, isn’t he?”. Example: “You work in a bank, don’t you?” ( Note that if there is not an auxiliary use do,If the main part of the sentence is negative, the question tag is positive. Example: “You haven’t met him, have you?”. Example: “She isn’t coming, is she?”The question tag uses the same verb as the main part of the sentence. If this is an auxiliary. Example: “They’ve gone away for a few days, haven’t they?”. Example: “They weren’t here, were they?”. Example: “He had met him before, hadn’t he?”. Example: “This isn’t working, is it?”Example: “I said that, didn’t I?”. Example: “You don’t recognise me, do you?”. Example: “She eats meat, doesn’t she?”If there is a modal verb in the main part of the sentence the question tag uses the sameExample: “They couldn’t hear me, could they?”. Example: “You won’t tell anyone, will you?”. Example: “I’m the fastest, aren’t I?”Example: “I’m not fat, am I?”Subject does something; or, in other words, is the doer of the action. Objectives:Compare:u 1. Rama helps Hari.It will be seen that these two sentences express the same meaning. But in sentence I, the form of the Verb shows that the person denoted by the subject doesRama (the person denoted by the subject) does something. The Verb helps is said to be in the Active Voice. In sentence 2, the form of the Verb shows that something is done to the person denotedSomething is done to Hari (the person denoted by the Subject.). The Verb helped is said to be in the Passive Voice. The Active Voice is so called because the person denoted by the Subject acts. I A Verb is in the Passive Voice when its form shows (as in sentence 2) thatI The Passive Voice is so called because the person or thing denoted by the Subject isI Voice is that form of a Verb which shows wherther what is denoted by the SubjectNote the change from the Active Voice to the Passive Voice in the following sentences:Active VoicePassive VoiceActive VoicePassive VoiceCommon Errors in English. Incorrect. Correct. I have a good news for you. I have good news for you. The men are national beings. Men are national beings.Correct. The boys leave the school at four o'clock. The boys leave school at four o'clock. He sent a word that he would come soon. He sent word that he would come soon. I have read the Shakespeare's Macbeth. I have read Shakespeare's Macbeth. You cannot set a foot in this house. You cannot set foot in this house. The envy is an evil passion. Envy is an evil passion. He has not yet gone to the bed. He has not yet gone to bed. He is Daniel in judgment. He is a Daniel in judgment. He made very wise decision. He made a very wise decision. Fire broke out in our village.